Technology fact sheet
- Beneficial microorganism-rich product for integrated pest control.
- Suitable for various crops.
What is Jeevatu crop treatments?
- Some crop diseases and pests have developed resistance to synthetic pesticides. Farmers are therefore looking for new products and the demand for cheap, healthy, ecofriendly, and multipurpose alternatives to synthetic pesticides and manufactured organic amendments is increasing.
- Jeevatu is a consortium of beneficial and naturally occurring microorganisms, available in liquid form to prevent and treat crop diseases, preferably in organic farming systems. It has also been used to control foul odour from city waste and prepare value added compost.
- It contains mixed cultures of naturally occurringmicroorganisms, like yeast, Trichoderma spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus, Azotobacter spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Proteus spp.
- Jeevatu-based organic crop treatments (J-T) can be part of an integrated nutrient and pesticide management plan to treat vegetables, cereals, pulses, spices, medicinal plants, flowers and fruit orchards. It can be applied on plants either directly, or (recommended) mixed with organic matter (Jeevatu liquid manure 1 and 2).
- Jeevatu liquid manure 1 is used to manage nutrient deficiency and various disease types and insect pests found in the root zone and under the soil surface.
- Jeevatu liquid manure 2 is used to control diseases and insect pest problems occurring above the ground.
- J-T is best suited for small and big land areas. It can also be used on very small areas such as seed nurseries, greenhouses and pots.
- Jeevatu is said to treat various kinds of disease such as bacterial, viral or fungal, affecting crops, to speed initial crop growth, thereby extending the crop cycle and resulting in higher quality crops, to increase yields, and to improve soil quality.
- No health or environmental hazards have been reported by the Central Microbiology Department of Tribhuvan University, Nepal. Yet, further analyses and scientific experiments are needed to validate the technology'seffectiveness on different soil-plant environments and under different climatic conditions in South and South-East Asia.
- Jeevatu does not contain genetically modified organisms (GMOs) nor is it derived from GM.
- The concept of Effective-Microorganisms (EM) was developed in the 1970s by a Japanese researcher, Dr. Higa. The main principle is to use a large variety of beneficial and compatible microorganisms that use diverse modes of action on the plant-soil ecosystem, as opposed to single microbial inoculants such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). EM are produced under different brand names worldwide. While the nature and mode of action of effective microorganisms is known, the large range of beneficial microorganisms is not yet completely understood.
- Jeevatu inoculant and practices have been developed by the Nepalese non-profit company, the Nepalese Farming Institute (NFI). The bottles of Jeevatu are manufactured in Kathmandu by Nepalese Natural Bio-products Pvt. Ltd.
- NFI has organized several practical training courses for users in different agro-ecological zones in Afghanistan, Bhutan, India and Nepal.
- Jeevatu is not internationally patented. It has been registered temporarily by the Ministry of Agriculture Development, Nepal and is in the process of being homologated in Nepal.
Where it works
- In Nepal, demographic pressure on arable land has degraded soil fertility and forced some farmers to cultivate very unfertile and scattered pieces of land, sometimes close to urban areas.
- Jeevatu is adopted and promoted by farmers, farmer cooperatives and NGOs as part of integrated organic farming systems.
- Jeevatu has been commercialized by NFI in the Higher, Middle and Low Hills and the Terai administrative zones ofNepal, ranging in altitude from 3,200 to 60 m above sea level.
Figure 1. Bottle of Jeevatu in a dealer shop
- It is difficult to adopt Jeevatu crop treatment in water-scarce areas where the field is located far from the water source and where Jeevatu is not commercially available.
- Jeevatu can be used (1) directly, by mixing the original product with water or (2) after fermentation (Jeevatu liquid manure 1 and 2). Early and more intense treatment is necessary to control pests. After the pest problem has been managed, the prophylactic treatment should follow.
- The bottles of Jeevatu have to be stored at room temperature and the expiry date (one year after manufacturing) should be respected.
1. Direct use of Jeevatu (spraying and drenching)
- As a prophylactic spray, 5 per cent solution (19 parts water mixed with 1 part Jeevatu). Applied twice a week to crops.
- As curative spray, 10 per cent solution (9 parts water and 1 part Jeevatu). Can be sprayed daily till the pest problem is controlled.
Figure 2. Jeevatu mixed with water for direct spraying
2. Jeevatu liquid manure 1 and 2
- Choose an open sunny place and dig a circular pit 1 foot (30 cm) deep and 2 feet (60 cm) in diameter.
- Make the pit surface smooth with raw cattle manure to increase and balance the temperature.
- Place a plastic sheet (500 gauze, 4 x 3 feet or 120 x 90 cm) in the pit in a bag-like shape. Jeevatu liquid manure is mixed inside this plastic ‘bag’, stirred and fermented alternatively under anaerobic (without air in the closed bag) and aerobic (with air in the open bag) conditions as follows.
Figure 3. Bags in pit and empty pit for Jeevatu liquid manure 1 and 2 fermentation